PSYC 2: Biological Foundations - Fall 2012 - Professor Claffey

 Unit: Organization

10/31/12 - Updated readings, terms and questions
10/26/12 - Updated readings
10/03/12 - Original version


Chapter 3: Anatomy of the nervous system
    All sections except:
        3.2 Cells of the Nervous System - we've already covered this
        3.3 Neuro Techniques - do not have to read this
Chapter 8: Sensorimotor system
    We are only spending one class on this
    You may want to initially skim but wait until after lecture to decide what to read in depth

Chapter 9: Development of the nervous system
    We are only spending one class on this
    You may want to initially skim but wait until after lecture to decide what to read in depth

16.2-3: Lateralization, Split Brain
    We are only spending one class on this
    You may want to initially skim but wait until after lecture to decide what to read in depth

10.1-4: Brain Damage & Neuroplasticity
    Will not be covered on Test 3

Optional resources:
    Untangling the brain - by Nature Video - specifically motor1.pdf

Study Questions

Nervous System Organization
    What are the protective tissues, spaces and fluids for the brain?
    What are the structural and functional differences between the central & peripheral nervous system?
    What is the difference between the autonomic and somatic systems?
    What is the difference between the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system?
    What are the terms for planes & directions within the brain?
    How is the spinal cord organized?
    What are the -encephalonic divisions on the brain?
    What are the components of the diencephalon?
Cortical Organization
    What are the landmark fissures of the brain?
    What are the lobes of the brain?
    What is the primary function(s) of each lobe?
    How are neurons organized in the cortex?
Subcortical Organization
    What are the components of the limbic system?
    What is the function of the basal ganglia?
    What are the stages of neural development?
    What is the timing of neural development across the human lifetime?
    What is an example of a "critical period" in development?
    Under what conditions do the hemispheres of the brain function independently?
    How are the functions of the left & right hemisphere different?
    How strong are the differences in hemispheres?
Motor System
    How does the primary motor cortex control motor movement?
    What other cortical areas support sensorimotor control?
    What are the roles of the cerebellum and basal ganglia?
    How does motor practice/learning change what areas are involved?
Damage (will not be covered on Test 3)
    How do tumors, closed-head injuries and infections damage the brain?
    How do strokes damage the brain?
    What is the difference in anterograde and retrograde neuronal degeneration?
    Under what conditions does neuronal regeneration take place? (species, stage of life, area of nervous system)
    What are some examples of neuronal reorganization?
    What are treatments for damage to the nervous system?


Clicker Questions

Monday, 10/29/12

Which of the following systems is incorrectly described?
  1. Central nervous system, send and receive information from the peripheral nervous system
  2. Sympathetic nervous system, maintain homeostasis via afferent nerves.
  3. Somatic nervous system, maintain homeostasis via afferent and efferent nerves.
  4. Parasympathetic nervous system, maintain homeostasis via efferent nerves.
  5. Both B & C
Which of the following is correctly paired? Which of the following is NOT correctly paired?
  1. The head is ventral to the neck.
  2. The eyes are medial to the ears.
  3. The eyes are posterior to the nose.
  4. The ears are lateral to the eyes.
  5. Both C & D

Wednesday, 10/31/12

What is true of MES-encephalon?

  1. It is at the bottom (closest to spine)
  2. It contains many small areas with diverse functions
  3. It supports memory
  4. It could be removed without affecting sensory systems
Going from the bottom (myelencephalon) to the top (telencephalon), which is/are true?
  1. Bottom is evolutionarily older and more likely to be similar across species
  2. Bottom is more critical to basic life functions
  3. Bottom is more responsible for sensory perception
  4. Two of these are true
  5. All of these are true
This relatively recently evolved area of the brain is involved in receiving input from various sensory modalities and works to integrate them:
  1. Cerebellum
  2. Thalamus
  3. Hypothalamus
  4. Posterior Parietal
  5. Both B & C
Phineas Gage likely had damage to which lobe?
  1. Frontal
  2. Parietal
  3. Occipital
  4. Temporal

Which area is the least involved in emotional behavior in humans?

  1. Amygdala
  2. Hippocampus
  3. Frontal cortex
  4. Thalamus

Friday, 11/2/12

Which two tasks would most separately activate the dosolateral versus ventromedial pathways?
  1. Flexing the biceps versus flexing the quads (legs)
  2. Playing a simple piano melody versus a complex piece
  3. Tapping one's fingers in succession versus holding a cup steady
  4. Standing upright versus doing ab crunches
Which is ordered so that the 1st provides INPUT to the 2nd, 2nd to the 3rd, etc...
  1. Secondary motor -> Primary motor -> Prefrontal -> Parietal
  2. Prefrontal -> Primary motor -> Secondary motor -> Parietal
  3. Parietal -> Prefrontal -> Secondary motor -> Primary motor
  4. Parietal -> Primary motor -> Secondary motor -> Prefrontal
A patient with Parkinson's Disease, sitting at rest, has a constant tremor that they can not inhibit.
Where do they most likely have damage?
  1. Prefrontal cortex
  2. Primary motor cortex
  3. Basal ganglia
  4. Lower motor neurons

If you wanted to install sensors in a paraplegic's brain to decode what movement he wants to make, which area would be best?

  1. Primary motor cortex
  2. Secondary motor cortex
  3. Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex
  4. Posterior parietal

Monday, 11/5/12

After a few days of getting used to your new phone, you no longer have to concentrate while texting. What changes have likely occurred?
  1. Don't have to use basal ganglia to keep the wrong fingers from moving
  2. Don't have to use DLPFC to remember where to search for each letter
  3. Don't have to use cerebellum to coordinate fast touches
  4. Don't have to use secondary motor cortex to type out frequently used words
Which movement might cause the pattern of activity seen here?
primary motor
  1. Practicing piano
  2. Tapping one's finger
  3. The knee jerk reflex
  4. Licking one's lips
  5. Pulling out a Jenga block

You want to train ONLY the left visual hemisphere to do a task, but then have the animal immediately perform the task with the right visual hemisphere. Which do you do? (Hint: animal will perform the task with left eye covered)

  1. Don't cut anything. Train with the left eye covered.
  2. Cut the optic chiasm but not the callosum. Train with the right eye covered.
  3. Cut the corpus callosum but not the optic chiasm. Train with the left eye covered.
  4. Cut both the optic chiasm and corpus callosum. Train with the right eye covered.

Wednesday, Nov 7

Gazzaniga experiment: If an object name is flashed on the left side of the screen, which can a split-brain patient do? (this person has "typical" lateralization of language)

  1. Name the object
  2. Pick up the object with the left hand
  3. Pick up the object with the right hand
  4. More than one of these
Which happens in between the other two? (I will give everyone credit for this because I didn't properly explain neurogenesis in class)
  1. Pruning
  2. Neurogenesis Neural differentiation
  3. Synaptogenesis

This diagram goes with the question below:

hippocampus neurogenesis

What does the green arrow at the bottom represent? (hint: this neuron is similar to a pyramidal neuron)

  1. The path that the neuron will migrate along
  2. Axon growth
  3. Dendrite growth
  4. Pruning

Copyright 2012 - Michael Claffey