PSYC 2: Biological Foundations - Fall 2012 - Professor Claffey

Unit: Damage & Disorders

12/02/12 - Original version


Chapter 10 - Brain Damage & Neuroplasticity
Chapter 18 (we cover these briefly in class, so read accordingly)
    Section 18.1 - Schizophrenia
    Section 18.2 - Affective Disorders: Depression and Mania (not talking about mania)


Brain Damage
    What are two forms of stroke? How do strokes damage the brain?
    How does the ischemic cascade work?
    How do tumors, closed-head injuries and infections damage the brain?
Neural Damage & Regeneration
    What is meant by neuroplasticity?
    What is the difference in anterograde and retrograde neuronal degeneration?
    Under what conditions does neuronal regeneration take place? (species, stage of life, area of nervous system)
    What are some examples of neuronal reorganization?
    What are treatment and recovery options for the nervous system?
Alzheimer's disease (AD)
    What are the causes? Are the causes well understood?
    What changes occur at the level of the neuron?
    What changes occur at the level of the brain?
    What is the genetic component of AD?
    What are the symptoms?
    What are the treatments?
    What happened with the Alzheimer's vaccine?
Parkinson's disease (PD)
    What are the causes? Are the causes well understood?
    What are the medication treatments for PD?
    What is deep brain stimulation (DBS) and how does it affect PD symptoms?
What are the symptoms, known causes/mechanisms, and treatments for:   
    Huntington's disease
    Multiple Sclerosis


Clicker Questions

Monday, Dec 3

1. Which intervention might be helpful right after a stroke?
  1. Giving a blood transfusion
  2. Inhibiting glutamate receptors
  3. Increasing sodium concentrations in the brain
2. An upper motor neuron goes from the motor cortex to the spinal cord. A lower motor neuron goes from the spinal cord to the finger. If a person loses their hand in an accident and the remainder of lower motor neuron dies, this is:
  1. anterograde degeneration
  2. retrograde degeneration
  3. transneuronal degeneration

3. What is happening with reorganization?

  1. A damaged area will find a new function to perform
  2. Areas that have their input cut off will seek input from other sources
  3. Areas that have their output cut off cut off will perform a new function

Wednesday, Dec 5

1. Which treatment option has the best chance of improving function?
  1. For a man blind since birth, transplanting healthy adult V1 neurons into his V1
  2. For a woman with damage to the left motor area, asking her to wear a mitten on her left hand
  3. For a person with a stroke, giving apoptosis inhibitors 2-3 weeks after the stroke

2. What is true about the cause of Alzheimer's disease?

  1. it is primarily a genetic disease
  2. increase likelihood with old age
  3. caused by environmental toxins
  4. A and B

3. What happened with the mice given the Alzheimer's vaccine?

  1. they developed less plaques
  2. they demonstrated improved memory
  3. they developed encephalitis
  4. a and b
  5. b and c

Friday, Dec 7

1. What might be a good treatment for schizophrenia?

  1. A medication that blocks dopamine reuptake
  2. A medication that blocks dopamine receptors
  3. Implanting healthy cells in substantia nigra to increase dopamine output
  4. administering L-dopa

2. What is true of dopamine disorders?

  1. High dopamine causes problems, but low dopamine does not
  2. Low dopamine causes problem, but high dopamine does not
  3. Problems with dopamine can be addressed with methods that do not involve drugs
  4. Abnormal dopamine always leads to cognitive disorders

(We didn't get to this one, but still a good question)
3. For the disease we've discussed in class,
which neurotransmitter has not been linked with a disease?

  1. Dopamine
  2. Serotonin
  3. Norepinephrine
  4. Acetylcholine
  5. All of these have been linked to a disease

Copyright 2012 - Michael Claffey